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golang的临时对象池sync.Pool

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今天在写码之时,发现了同事用到了sync.pool。因不知其因,遂Google之。虽然大概知道其原因和用法。还不能融汇贯通。故写此记,方便日后查阅。直至明了。

正文

在高并发或者大量的数据请求的场景中,我们会遇到很多问题,垃圾回收就是其中之一(garbage collection),为了减少优化GC,我们一般想到的方法就是能够让对象得以重用。这就需要一个对象池来存储待回收对象,等待下次重用,从而减少对象产生数量。我们可以把sync.Pool类型值看作是存放可被重复使用的值的容器。此类容器是自动伸缩的、高效的,同时也是并发安全的。为了描述方便,我们也会把sync.Pool类型的值称为临时对象池,而把存于其中的值称为对象值。这个类设计的目的是用来保存和复用临时对象,以减少内存分配,降低CG压力。

我们看下Go的源码:

// Copyright 2013 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
 
package sync
 
import (
	"internal/race"
	"runtime"
	"sync/atomic"
	"unsafe"
)
 
// A Pool is a set of temporary objects that may be individually saved and
// retrieved.
//
// Any item stored in the Pool may be removed automatically at any time without
// notification. If the Pool holds the only reference when this happens, the
// item might be deallocated.
//
// A Pool is safe for use by multiple goroutines simultaneously.
//
// Pool's purpose is to cache allocated but unused items for later reuse,
// relieving pressure on the garbage collector. That is, it makes it easy to
// build efficient, thread-safe free lists. However, it is not suitable for all
// free lists.
//
// An appropriate use of a Pool is to manage a group of temporary items
// silently shared among and potentially reused by concurrent independent
// clients of a package. Pool provides a way to amortize allocation overhead
// across many clients.
//
// An example of good use of a Pool is in the fmt package, which maintains a
// dynamically-sized store of temporary output buffers. The store scales under
// load (when many goroutines are actively printing) and shrinks when
// quiescent.
//
// On the other hand, a free list maintained as part of a short-lived object is
// not a suitable use for a Pool, since the overhead does not amortize well in
// that scenario. It is more efficient to have such objects implement their own
// free list.
//
type Pool struct {
	local     unsafe.Pointer // local fixed-size per-P pool, actual type is [P]poolLocal
	localSize uintptr        // size of the local array
 
	// New optionally specifies a function to generate
	// a value when Get would otherwise return nil.
	// It may not be changed concurrently with calls to Get.
	New func() interface{}
}
 
// Local per-P Pool appendix.
type poolLocal struct {
	private interface{}   // Can be used only by the respective P.
	shared  []interface{} // Can be used by any P.
	Mutex                 // Protects shared.
	pad     [128]byte     // Prevents false sharing.
}
 
// Put adds x to the pool.
func (p *Pool) Put(x interface{}) {
	if race.Enabled {
		// Under race detector the Pool degenerates into no-op.
		// It's conforming, simple and does not introduce excessive
		// happens-before edges between unrelated goroutines.
		return
	}
	if x == nil {
		return
	}
	l := p.pin()
	if l.private == nil {
		l.private = x
		x = nil
	}
	runtime_procUnpin()
	if x == nil {
		return
	}
	l.Lock()
	l.shared = append(l.shared, x)
	l.Unlock()
}
 
// Get selects an arbitrary item from the Pool, removes it from the
// Pool, and returns it to the caller.
// Get may choose to ignore the pool and treat it as empty.
// Callers should not assume any relation between values passed to Put and
// the values returned by Get.
//
// If Get would otherwise return nil and p.New is non-nil, Get returns
// the result of calling p.New.
func (p *Pool) Get() interface{} {
	if race.Enabled {
		if p.New != nil {
			return p.New()
		}
		return nil
	}
	l := p.pin()
	x := l.private
	l.private = nil
	runtime_procUnpin()
	if x != nil {
		return x
	}
	l.Lock()
	last := len(l.shared) - 1
	if last >= 0 {
		x = l.shared[last]
		l.shared = l.shared[:last]
	}
	l.Unlock()
	if x != nil {
		return x
	}
	return p.getSlow()
}
 
func (p *Pool) getSlow() (x interface{}) {
	// See the comment in pin regarding ordering of the loads.
	size := atomic.LoadUintptr(&p.localSize) // load-acquire
	local := p.local                         // load-consume
	// Try to steal one element from other procs.
	pid := runtime_procPin()
	runtime_procUnpin()
	for i := 0; i < int(size); i++ {
		l := indexLocal(local, (pid+i+1)%int(size))
		l.Lock()
		last := len(l.shared) - 1
		if last >= 0 {
			x = l.shared[last]
			l.shared = l.shared[:last]
			l.Unlock()
			break
		}
		l.Unlock()
	}
 
	if x == nil && p.New != nil {
		x = p.New()
	}
	return x
}
 
// pin pins the current goroutine to P, disables preemption and returns poolLocal pool for the P.
// Caller must call runtime_procUnpin() when done with the pool.
func (p *Pool) pin() *poolLocal {
	pid := runtime_procPin()
	// In pinSlow we store to localSize and then to local, here we load in opposite order.
	// Since we've disabled preemption, GC can not happen in between.
	// Thus here we must observe local at least as large localSize.
	// We can observe a newer/larger local, it is fine (we must observe its zero-initialized-ness).
	s := atomic.LoadUintptr(&p.localSize) // load-acquire
	l := p.local                          // load-consume
	if uintptr(pid) < s {
		return indexLocal(l, pid)
	}
	return p.pinSlow()
}
 
func (p *Pool) pinSlow() *poolLocal {
	// Retry under the mutex.
	// Can not lock the mutex while pinned.
	runtime_procUnpin()
	allPoolsMu.Lock()
	defer allPoolsMu.Unlock()
	pid := runtime_procPin()
	// poolCleanup won't be called while we are pinned.
	s := p.localSize
	l := p.local
	if uintptr(pid) < s {
		return indexLocal(l, pid)
	}
	if p.local == nil {
		allPools = append(allPools, p)
	}
	// If GOMAXPROCS changes between GCs, we re-allocate the array and lose the old one.
	size := runtime.GOMAXPROCS(0)
	local := make([]poolLocal, size)
	atomic.StorePointer((*unsafe.Pointer)(&p.local), unsafe.Pointer(&local[0])) // store-release
	atomic.StoreUintptr(&p.localSize, uintptr(size))                            // store-release
	return &local[pid]
}
 
func poolCleanup() {
	// This function is called with the world stopped, at the beginning of a garbage collection.
	// It must not allocate and probably should not call any runtime functions.
	// Defensively zero out everything, 2 reasons:
	// 1. To prevent false retention of whole Pools.
	// 2. If GC happens while a goroutine works with l.shared in Put/Get,
	//    it will retain whole Pool. So next cycle memory consumption would be doubled.
	for i, p := range allPools {
		allPools[i] = nil
		for i := 0; i < int(p.localSize); i++ {
			l := indexLocal(p.local, i)
			l.private = nil
			for j := range l.shared {
				l.shared[j] = nil
			}
			l.shared = nil
		}
		p.local = nil
		p.localSize = 0
	}
	allPools = []*Pool{}
}
 
var (
	allPoolsMu Mutex
	allPools   []*Pool
)
 
func init() {
	runtime_registerPoolCleanup(poolCleanup)
}
 
func indexLocal(l unsafe.Pointer, i int) *poolLocal {
	return &(*[1000000]poolLocal)(l)[i]
}
 
// Implemented in runtime.
func runtime_registerPoolCleanup(cleanup func())
func runtime_procPin() int
func runtime_procUnpin()

sync.Pool 最常用的两个函数Get/Put

var pool = &sync.Pool{New:func()interface{}{return NewObject()}}
    pool.Put()
    Pool.Get()

对象池在Get的时候没有里面没有对象会返回nil,所以我们需要New function来确保当获取对象对象池为空时,重新生成一个对象返回,前者的功能是从池中获取一个interface{}类型的值,而后者的作用则是把一个interface{}类型的值放置于池中。

// 建立对象
var pool = &sync.Pool{New:func()interface{}{return "Hello,xiequan"}}
// 准备放入的字符串
val := "Hello,World!"
// 放入
pool.Put(val)
// 取出
log.Println(pool.Get())
// 再取就没有了,会自动调用NEW
log.Println(pool.Get())

再来看一个例子:

package main
 
import (
    "fmt"
    "runtime"
    "runtime/debug"
    "sync"
    "sync/atomic"
)
 
func main() {
    // 禁用GC,并保证在main函数执行结束前恢复GC
    defer debug.SetGCPercent(debug.SetGCPercent(-1))
    var count int32
    newFunc := func() interface{} {
        return atomic.AddInt32(&count, 1)
    }
    pool := sync.Pool{New: newFunc}
 
    // New 字段值的作用
    v1 := pool.Get()
    fmt.Printf("v1: %v\n", v1)
 
    // 临时对象池的存取
    pool.Put(newFunc())
    pool.Put(newFunc())
    pool.Put(newFunc())
    v2 := pool.Get()
    fmt.Printf("v2: %v\n", v2)
 
    // 垃圾回收对临时对象池的影响
    debug.SetGCPercent(100)
    runtime.GC()
    v3 := pool.Get()
    fmt.Printf("v3: %v\n", v3)
    pool.New = nil
    v4 := pool.Get()
    fmt.Printf("v4: %v\n", v4)
}

通过Get方法获取到的值是任意的。如果一个临时对象池的Put方法未被调用过,且它的New字段也未曾被赋予一个非nil的函数值,那么它的Get方法返回的结果值就一定会是nil。Get方法返回的不一定就是存在于池中的值。不过,如果这个结果值是池中的,那么在该方法返回它之前就一定会把它从池中删除掉。

这样一个临时对象池在功能上看似与一个通用的缓存池相差无几。但是实际上,临时对象池本身的特性决定了它是一个“个性”非常鲜明的同步工具。我们在这里说明它的两个非常突出的特性。

来看一个syscn.pool和bytes.Buffer使用的例子:

type Dao struct {
	bp       sync.Pool
}
 
func New(c *conf.Config) (d *Dao) {
	d = &Dao{
		bp: sync.Pool{
			New: func() interface{} {
				return &bytes.Buffer{}
			},
		},
	}
	return
}
 
 
func (d *Dao) Infoc(args ...string) (value string, err error) {
	if len(args) == 0 {
		return
	}
	// fetch a buf from bufpool
	buf, ok := d.bp.Get().(*bytes.Buffer)
	if !ok {
		return "", ErrType
	}
	// append first arg
	if _, err := buf.WriteString(args[0]); err != nil {
		return "", err
	}
	for _, arg := range args[1:] {
		// append ,arg
		if _, err := buf.WriteString(defaultSpliter); err != nil {
			return "", err
		}
		if _, err := buf.WriteString(strings.Replace(arg, defaultSpliter, defaultReplacer, -1)); err != nil {
			return "", err
		}
	}
	value = buf.String()
	buf.Reset()
	d.bp.Put(buf)
	return
}

在实现过程中还要特别注意的是Pool本身也是一个对象,要把Pool对象在程序开始的时候初始化为全局唯一。

对象池使用是较简单的,但原生的sync.Pool有个较大的问题:我们不能自由控制Pool中元素的数量,放进Pool中的对象每次GC发生时都会被清理掉。这使得sync.Pool做简单的对象池还可以,但做连接池就有点心有余而力不足了,比如:在高并发的情景下一旦Pool中的连接被GC清理掉,那每次连接DB都需要重新三次握手建立连接,这个代价就较大了。

总结

对象池的一些适用场景(比如作为临时且状态无关的数据的暂存处),以及一些不适用的场景(比如用来存放数据库连接的实例)。如果我们在做实现技术的选型的时候把临时对象池作为了候选之一,那么就应该好好想想它的“个性”是不是符合你的需要。如果真的适合,那么它的特性一定会为你的程序增光添彩,无论在功能上还是在性能上。而如果它被用在了不恰当的地方,那么就只能适得其反了

参考文献:

https://golang.org/src/sync/pool.go

转载请注明:快乐编程 » golang的临时对象池sync.Pool

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